Monday, January 16, 2012

Smuggled in Potato Sacks: Fifty Stories of the Hidden Children of the Kaunas Ghetto edited by Solomon Abramovich and Yakov Zilberg 2011

"Each story is told by the survivor and feels as if you are listening to him/her recount this part of his/her life." from a review by Yael Weinstock Mashbaum in The International School for Holocaust Studies, Yad Vashem
This anthology of moving personal narratives, edited by Solomon Abramovich and Yakov Zilberg, is comprised of fifty entries. Most entries were written by one survivor. A few were written by married couples, siblings, and close friends. They are of varying lengths, from about two to twenty  pages. Many include family photos and photos of interesting documents. A number of photos include unidentified ghetto neighbors and some are of Lithuanian rescuers.

Although not written by experienced writers, the stories have an immediacy that is captivating in their horror. Each story is grounded in the specificity of an individual’s unique set of circumstances, but as a group it’s easy to generalize about their collective trauma: The writers, children born in the 1930’s and 40’s, were smuggled out of the ghetto and went to live with Lithuanians their families knew or others contacted on their behalf. All children had to take on new identities. Their caretakers had to recite fictitious stories about who the parents of these children were to neighbors and inquiring officials. Those children who spoke Yiddish  had to be trained not to,  and they also had to be taught to be wary of prying neighbors and men in uniform. Many were moved from one home to another when their caretakers became concerned that they had been or might be identified as Jewish.

Jewish children who were blonde and blue-eyed, and boys who were not circumcised were easier to place. Siblings were often split up. Parents or other close relatives often made dangerous, tearful, clandestine visits. At the end of the war, sometimes a few years afterwards, when parents were released from concentration camps and hospitals, a parent or another relative returning to retrieve a hidden child was sometimes met with stonewalling by the caretaker or by the thoroughly confused child.  Many waited for parents who never returned and were brought up in orphanages, or if they were lucky, were adopted by relatives. Some of the children were hard to trace because they had false identities and they didn’t know what their real names were. Some were re-connected to relatives when they were adults.

A number of the writers discuss how they felt when asked to write a piece for this anthology. Some had repressed their memories and thought they remembered little or nothing. Others had very vivid, terrifying memories but had never talked about them. Because of a concerted effort not to look backward but to look forward, there was a tendency to bury the painful past, and some of the survivors did not even know that some of their friends and professional colleagues had also been hidden children in the Kaunas ghetto. 

It seems that each writer was given guidelines because most entries cover many of the same topics. They each give a brief family history including the countries and towns where their families were from, they detail what they know about how their family members and friends were killed, they give credit to those relatives and friends who helped them survive in the ghetto and to those who helped them escape. Some mention that they were sorry that they hadn’t asked more questions of relatives now deceased. Toward the end of the entries they summarize their post-Holocaust life: where they settled, and what they did professionally and personally. They also write about their rescuers and whether or not they kept in touch with them.  They cite which ones were honored by Yad VaShem or the Lithuanian government for putting their own lives at risk to hide Jewish children.  Most of the writers in this volume eventually immigrated to Israel.

This anthology includes a short forward that explains how this collection came to be. It also includes a very readable, informative thirty-six page history called “Origins of Jewish Lithuania” written by the two editors that has photographs  and maps and end notes citing sources. At the end of the volume there is a Bibliography and an Index.

Below is a listing of the names that appear in the fifty entries as well as the places that are mentioned that are where family lived outside of Lithuania before, after and during the war. Some names appear in more than one entry. For example, the writer of one entry might mention a friend or a relative who also has written an entry. Most Jews in the Kovna ghetto had lived in the suburb of Slobodka (Vilijampole). According to the book's forward only 250 to 300 children of the Kovna Ghetto survived out of approximately 5000. In general, the women who survived were deported to Stutthof, the men to Dachau. Towns in Lithuania as well as the concentration camps are not listed in each separate entry.

1. Ariela Abramovich Sef

Shlomo-Icik Abramovich – married to Sira
    Yakov Abramovich – son of Shlomo-Icik and Sira; married to Bronia (Bracha) Maizel
        Ariela Abramovich – daughter of Yakov and Bronia; married Roman Sef (2nd husband); (author)
        Solomon Abramovich – son of Yakov and Bronia
    Beno Abramovich – son of Shlomo-Icik and Sira
    Ruvim Abramovich – son of Shlomo-Icik and Sira; married to Basia
        Borya and Myriam Abramovich – children of Ruvim and Basia
    Max Abramovich – son of Schlomo-Icik and Sira
        Rivotchka and Boris Abramovich – children of Max
    Rebeca Abramovich Griliches – daughter of Shlomo-Icik and Sira
    Nyonya Abramovich – son of Shlomo-Icik and Sira; married Lily
        Anya Abramovich – daughter of Nyonya and Lily

Berta Maizel
    Bronia (Bracha Maizel) – married to Yakov Abramovich (see above)

Josef – cousin of Ariela Abramovich Sef (exact relationship not clear)

Friends and Acquaintances
Jacob Rabinovich
Beba and Veva Mintz – brothers
Shimon Ratner
B. Zacherin
A. Zilberg
Elena Hackelis


2. Ilana Kamber-Ash

People Family
Marcus Kamber – married Judith Moses
    Ilana Kamber – daughter of Marcus and Judith; married Pavel Ash; (author)
        Aaron (Arik) and Judish (Dita) Ash – children of Ilana and Pavel

Eliezer Moses – brother of Judith  (see above)

Friends and Acquaintances
Maxim and Erica Levin
Elkhanan Elkes
    Yoel and Sara Elkes

London, England
Moscow, Russia

3. Rona Rozental-Zinger
    Schmuel Rozental – married Rone Schmuilove
        Leo Rozental – son of Schmuel and Rone
        Rona Rozental Zinger – daughter of Rone and Schmuel; (author)

Oscher Schmuilov – married Gitel
        Eli Schmuilov – son of Oscher and Gitel; married Chaja Glushakaite
            Lusi Schmuilov – daughter of Eli and Chaja
        Rone Schmuilove – daughter of Oscher and Gitel; married Schmuel Rozental (see above)

Friends and Acquaintances
Pese Karnauskaite Musel

Melbourne, Australia

4. Yakov Zoreff (Goldshmidt)
Haim-Shimon Goldschmidt – married Sara Poger
    Hirsh  Goldshmidt – son of Haim-Shimon and Sara   
    Malka Goldshmidt – daughter of Haim-Shimon and Sara; married to Berl Zinger
        Cilia Zinger- daughter of Malka and Berl
    Icale  Goldschmidt – daughter (?) of Haim-Shimon and Sara
    Bella Goldschmidt – daughter of Haim-Simon and Sara
    Gita Goldschmidt – daughter of Haim-Simon and Sara
    Meir-Lev (Leib) Goldschmidt – son of Haim-Shimon and Sara; married Sonia Burko; second wife was Yocheved Burko
        Yakov Zoreff (Goldschmidt) – son of Meir-Lev and Sonia (author)
    Asia (Osnat) Goldschmidt – son of Haim-Shimon and Sara
    Abraam Goldschmidt – son of Haim-Simon and Sara

Gershon Burko – married Roza
    Sonia Burko – daughter of Gershon and Roza; married Meir-Lev Goldschmidt (see above)
    Yulia (Judith) Burko – daughter of Gershon and Roza
    Yocheved Burko – daughter of Gershon and Roza (see above)   

Friends and Acquaintances
Juda (Judke) Zupovich
Izia Rabinowich
Schmuel and Rone Rosental
Sarale Katz
Alia Ranzuk

Holon Bat Yam, Israel

5. Yakov Zilberg
Abram (Abrasha) Zilberg – married Sonia Elitzur
    Mina Zilberg – daughter of Abram and Sonia
    Yakov Zilberg – son of Abram and Sonia (author)
        Dalia and Yael Zilberg – daughters of Yakov

Solomon Elitzur
    Sonia Elitzur – daughter of Solomon; wife of Abram Zilberg (see above); common-law relationship with Naom Shafransky
    Anuita Elitzur  – daughter of Solomon
        Mirale – daughter of Anuita

    Naom Shafransky – married to Genia; second common law marriage to Sonia Zilberg (see above)
        Rouven (Ruvik) Shafransky – son of Naom and Genia
        Salomea (Saly) Shaftransky – daughter of Naom and Sonia

Friends and Acquaintances
S. Zaidelson
B. Preis
Yulia Yoffe
    Lyda Yoffe – daughter of Yulia

Kibbutz Sde Nachum
Kfar Sava

6. Benya Chaitas
Leibe Chaitas – married Genia Saitovich
    Benya Chaitas – son of Leibe and Genia; married Sara Zaczepinski; author
Zalman Chaitis – brother of Leibe; married to Sara

Sarah Saitovich – sister of Genia; married to Gershon Oshri
Berl Shpak – married to Sara (cousin of Genia Saitovich (relationship not clear)
    Boris Shpak – son of Berl and Sara

Friends and Acquaintances
Shmuel Peipert

Bat Yam, Israel
Haifa, Israel

7. Irena Aronovsky-Voschina-Savir
Leon (Liola)  Aronovsky – married Gabriella (Ela) Sabovska
    Irena Arnovsky-Voschina-Savir – daughter of Leon and Gabriella (author)
Abrasha Aronovsky – brother of Leon

Baruch (Boria) Voschin – married Gabriella Sabovska (her 2nd marriage; see above)

Friends and Acquaintances
Natan Nabrisky

London, England
Rehovot, Israel

8. Sara Gillman-Plamm
Berl and Nessia Gillman
    Moshe Gillman – son of Berl and Nessie; married Sheina Codikovaite
        Sara Gillman Plamm – daughter of Moshe and Sheina; author
            Naomi and Lev Plamm children of Sara and ?
        Liuba Gillman – daughter of Moshe and Sheina
        David Gillman – son of Moshe and Sheina
    Lebale Gillman – son of Berl and Nessie

Friends and Acquaintances
Frida Glazman
Yulia Meltz
Shalom Eilati

Toronto, Canada

9. Michael (Misha) Langevich
Misha Langevich – married Haviva (Hinda) Korabelnik; author
    Michael (Misha) Langevich – son of Misha and Haviva; married Polina
        Arnon Langevich – son of Michael and Polina
Shijus Langevich – brother of Misha; married Sarra
Juda Langevich – brother of Misha and Shijus

Fivel Korabelnik – father of Hinda (see above)
Friends and Acquaintances
Shmuel and Hava Shilkiner
Keila Kudrika

Kiriat Ono, Israel

10.Yulia Meltz-Beilinson
Meir Meltz – married Henya Krubelnik
    Yulia Meltz – daughter of Meir and Henya; author

Friends and Acquaintances
Tanchum Arnstam
Orchik Keltz
Sara Libmanaite
Aaron Barak (Brik)
Yankel Lipavski

Tel Aviv, Israel

11. Aviva Tkatsch (Thatch)-Sandler
Leib and Rhoda Tkatsch
    Isaac Tkatsch – son of Leib and Rhoda
    Moshe Tkatsch – son of Leib and Rhoda
        Peshele (Polina) Tkatsch-Davidson – daughter of Moshe
    Sara Tkatsch – daughter of Leib and Rhoda
    Benesh Tkatsch – son of Leib and Rhoda; married Riva Makielevich
        Aviva Tkatsch –daughter of Benesh and Riva; married Robert Sandler (author)
        Rhoda Tkatsch – daughter of Benesh and Riva
        Leonard (Leib) Tkatsch – son of Benesh and Riva
    Pesach Tkatsch – son of Leib and Rhoda

Isaac Makielevich – married Emma Efron
    Riva Makielevich – daughter of Isaac and Emma; married Benesh Tkatsch (see above)
    Shmuel Makielevich – son of Isaac and Emma

Munich, Germany
Detroit, Michigan

12. Ruth Bass-Glikman
Chaim Bass
    Leiba Bass – son of Chaim; married Tirca Galperin
        Eliezer Bass – son of Leiba and Tirca
        Ruth Bass – daughter of Leiba and Tirca; married Leon Glikman; author
    Judith Bass – daughter of Chaim
    Sonia Bass – daughter of Chaim

Miriam Borovsky  Galperin
    Tirca Galperin (see above)

David and Chaya Markovsky (Markauskiene) – adoptive parents of Ruth Bass
    Rosa and Dalia Markovsky – daughters of David and Chaya

Friends and Acquaintances
Natan Nabrisky
Grisha Mendelbraut
Eta and Mitia Ginkas

Tel Aviv, Israel

13. Sara Levin-Burmenko
Shmuel Kriger – married Sarah
    Sonia Kriger – daughter of Shmuel and Sarah; married Leibl Levin; 2nd husband Saul Burstein
        Sara Levin – daughter of Sonia and Leibl; married Mark Burmenko; author
        Moshe – son of Sonia and Saul
    Lena Kriger – daughter of Shmuel and Sarah; married Kolya Stonys
        Ruta, Saulius, and Meta Stonys – children of Lena and Kolya

Isaac Levin – married Fruma
    Leibl Levin – son of Isaac and Fruma (see above)
Odessa, Russian Empire
Kiev, Russian Empire
New York

14. Rieta Volpert-Lesokhin
David Volpert – married Ida Gurvich
    Rieta Volpert – daughter of David and Ida; married Yuri Lesokhin; author
Misha Volpert – brother of David; married Mira
    Lionia and Zhenia – twin children of Misha and Mira

Izya Rosenblum – uncle of author (exact relationship not clear)
    Liolik – son of Izya
Sasha and Vera Rosenblum – relatives of author (exact relationship not clear)
    Ela – daughter of Sasha and Vera
Aleksander (Vava) Rosenblum – cousin of author (exact relationship not clear)
Anna (Niuta) Beilinson – aunt of author (exact relationship not clear)
    Yakov and Pavel Beilinson – sons of Niuta

Friends and Acquaintances
Misha Kopelman
Alik Pertzikovitz
Masha Gocaite
Alik Peretz (possibly the same as Alik Pertzikovitz?)

Haifa, Israel
Soviet Union

15. Rivka Feller-Milner
Leib Feller – married Sara
    Aaron Feller – married Berta Neiman
        Rivka Feller – daughter of Aaron and Berta; author
        Aviva Feller – daughter of Aaron and Berta
    Dvora Feller – married Yehuda Kaufman
        Altala Kaufman – daughter of Dvora and Yehuda   

Noah Neiman – brother of Berta (see above)

Friends and Acquaintances
Henale Kuchinka 
Mirka Kuchinka – sister of Henale
Fira Gurfinkel   

Netanya, Israel

16. Polina Tkatsch-Davidson
Moshe Tkatsch – married Dora Levinsky
    Polina Tkatsch – daughter of Moshe and Dora; author
Pesach Tkatsch – brother of Moshe
Benesh Tkatsch – brother of Moshe
    Aviva Tkatsch – daughter of Benesh

Netanya, Israel

17. Rachel (Lialia) Blumenthal
Theodor (Teddy) Blumenthal married Ester (Esia) Sandler
    Rachel (Liala) Blumenthal – daughter of Theodor and Ester; author
Adolph Blumenthal – brother of Theodor
    Kolya – son of Adolph
Boris Blumenthal – brother of Theodor

Rafoel Sandler – married Cerne-Beile Sandler
    Ester (Esia) Sandler – married Theodor Blumenthal (see above)
        Rachel (Liala) Blumenthal – daughter of Ester and Theodor (author)
    Gita Sandler – daughter of Rafoel and Cerne-Beile; married Grisha Karnovsky
        Mika (Mitchka) Karnovsky – daughter of Gita and Grisha
    Lyka (Lea) Sandler – daughter of Rafoel and Cerne-Beile

Samuel Kapit – author’s uncle (exact relationship unclear)

Friends and Acquaintances
Carmela Heibron and her sister Renata
Liola Aronovsky
Judith (Judica) Kamber
Marcus (Mendke) Kamber


18. Bluma Alkanovich (Tolochkiene), Alik Abramovich, and Frida Glazman Abramovich
Mendel Alkanovich – married Risa Melamed
    Bluma Alkanovich – daughter of Mendel and Risa (author)
    Frida Alkanovich – daughter of Mendel and Risa

Mina Melamed – sister of Risa (see above); married Cvaina Beider
    Chaim Olef (Alek) and David Melamed – sons of Mina and Cvaina

Shlomo Abramovich – married Feige Kulbak
    Alik Abramovich – son of Shlomo and Feige (see above); married Frida Glazman (author)
        Shlomo (Solomon) Abramovich – son of Alik and Frida
Feige Abramovich – 2nd marriage (common law?)  to Naum Meriesh (see above; cousin of Mendel Alkanovich exact relationship not clear)       

Shlomo Glazman – married Katia (Kuna) Kranik
    Frida Glazman – daughter of Shlomo and Katia; married Alik Abramovich (see above)

Friends and Acquaintances
Yakov, Matias and Riva Taft (siblings)
Chaim Elin
Yankale Levy
Ilana Kamber
Mike Karnovsky
Sara Levin
Lyusya Borstaite
Aaron Frank

Ramat Gan, Israel

19. Pesah (Petya) Joselevich
Shimon Joselevich – married Lea Shames
    Chana Joselevish – daughter of Shimon and Lea
    Pesah Joselevich – son of Shimon and Lea; married Via Israelyte; author
David Joselevich – brother of Shimon
Masha Joselevich – sister of Shimon; married Bentsel Garunas
    Hirsch Garunas – son of Masha and Bentsel; married to Lyuba
        Masha Garunas Brener – daughter of Hirsch and Lyuba
    Meir (Meika) Joselevich – son of Masha and Bentsel
Moshe Joselevich – brother of Shimon

Yehuda Edelman – distant relative of Lea Shames; nephew of Rabbi Soleveichik in US

Friends and Acquaintances
Faige and Pranas Vocelka

Kiryat Sefer, Israel
Hulon, Israel

20. Yaakov Taft

Leib and Hanna Taft
    Yaakov Taft – son of Leib and Hanna; married Shulamith; author

    Matetiahu (Matias) and Riva Taft – children of Leib’s brother and Hanna’s sister

Friends and Acquaintances
Moshe Parasonis – married to Rina Joels
Gidon Sheftel

Jerusalem, Israel

21. Rosian Bagriansky-Zerner
 Solomon and Amalia Bagriansky
    Paul Bagriansky – son of Solomon and Amalia; married Gerta Chason
        Rosian Bagriansky Zerner – daughter of Paul and Gerta; author

Julius (Judel) and Anna Chason
    Bella Chason – daughter of Julius and Anna
    Henia Chason – daughter of Julius and Anna
    Fredy Chason – son of Julius and Anna
    Gerta Chason – daughter of Julius and Anna (see above)

Friends and Acquaintances
Rivka Shmukler Oshorovich
Jacob Gens

Konigsberg, Germany
Milan, Italy
Newton, Massachusetts, USA 

22. Liuba (Lyusya) Borstaite
Friedrich Borst – married Lea Nemanuncaite
    Ida Borst – daughter of Friedrich and Lea; married Benya Zhemaitis
    Leon (Arie) Borst – son of Friedrich and Lea
    Frida Borst – daughter of Friedrich and Lea
    Lyusya Borst (Borstaite) – daughter of Friedrich and Lea; author

Chaya Rachoviciene – aunt of author (exact relationship unclear)
    Rachel and Riva Rachoviciene – daughters of Chaya


23. Estera Elinaite
Leiseris Elinas
    Mejeris Elinas – son of Leiseris; married Busia Kormanaite
        Estera Elinaite (Esther Yellin); author
            Ilana Yellin – daughter of Estera; married Valery Panov
                Tslil Meir Panov – son of Ilana and Valery
    Chaim Elinas (Yellin) – son of Leiseris

Benjaminas Kormanas
    Busia Kormanaite – daughter of Benjaminas


24. Hasia Aronaite-Gitlin and Volodia Katz

Chaim Aronas – married to Michle Katz; 2nd wife Malka
    Hasia Aronaite – daughter of Chaim and Michle; married Jakov Gitlin; author
    Motele Aronas – son of Chaim and Michle
Moshe Aronas – brother of Chaim

Yosef Katz – brother of Michle (see above); married to Hanah
    Cilia Katz – daughter of Michle and Hanah
    Volodia Katz – son of Michle and Hanah

Sonia and Riva – aunts of author (exact relationship not clear)

Ida Shapiriene – aunt of Volodia Katz (see above)
    Folia Shapiris – son of Ida

Ashdod, Israel

25. Ilya Levy and Tamara Ratneryte-Kadishaite-Levy
Shmuel-Yaakov (Yankele) Levy – married to Sheina Baron
    Ilya Levy – son of Shmuel-Yaakov and Sheina; married to Tamara Ratneryte-Kadishaite (authors)
        Rafael and Asia – children of Ilya and Tamara

Yakov Bloch – 2nd husband of Sheina Baron
    Masha – daughter of Yakov and Sheina; half-sister to Ilya Levy
Shimon Ratner – married Judesa Zeigarnik
    Rut Ratner – daughter of Shimon and Judesa
    Tamara Ratneryte – daughter of Shimon and Judesa; married Ilya Levy (see above)

Dov Alroy (Zeigarnik) – maternal cousin of author; exact relationship unclear

Friends and Acquaintances
Israella Blat
Liba – sister of Israella
Ida Shatereine
Ruth Ben David
Malka Pogotsky
Dora and Abraham Kadishas – adopted Tamara Ratneryte (author)
Liolia Aizinbud
Shlomo Abramovich

Kibbutz Masarik
Kfar Sava, Israel

26. Ada Feldstein-Levner
 Tzemach Feldstein
    Lev Feldstein – son of Tzemach; married Sara Aronovsky
        Ada Feldstein – daughter of Lev; married Hertz (Edik) Levner; author
            Lev(Ari) and Daniel Levner – sons of Ada and Hertz

Esther Aronovsky
    Liolia Aronvsky – son of Esther
    Sara Aronovsky – daughter of Esther (see above)

Meir Levner – married Frida Melnikaite
    Hertz Levner – son of Meir and Frida (see above)

Netanya, Israel
Toronto, Canada

27. Ahuva (Liuva) Peres-Gold and Shalom Peres
Eliezer (Lazer) Peres – married Shulia Budnik
    Shalom Peres – son of Eliezer and Shulia; married Alexandra; author
        Amos and Belinda Peres – children of Shalom and Alexandra
    Ahuva Peres – daughter of Eliezer and Shulia; married Shmuel Gold; author
        Ziv Gold – son of Ahuva and Shmuel

Nesia (Nehmod) Peres – sister of Shulia

Montreal, Canada
Haifa, Israel

28. Rivka Shlapobersky-Strichman
Eliyahu Meir Feivelson
    Feige Feivelson – daughter of Eliyahu; married Eliyahu Shlapobersky
        Rivka Shlapobersky – daughter of Feige and Eliyahu; marriedYakov Strichman; author
            Liora and Eliran Strichman – children of Rivka and Yakov

    Eliyahu Shlapobersky – married Feige Feivelson (see above)
    Harry Shlapobersky – brother of Eliyahu
    Rachel Shlapobersky Levin – sister of Eliyahu; married Jermiyahu Ratner

Friends and Acquiantances
Shmuel Peipert
Sara Weis
Yehuda and Chaim Ronder - brothers

South Africa
Haifa, Israel

29. Dan Vaintraub

Haim Vaintraub – married Helena Girshovich
    Dan Vaintraub – son of Haim and Helena; author
            Idan and Karin – grandchildren of Dan   
    Itimar and Abigail – cousins of Dan Vaintraub (exact relationship unclear); adopted by Haim and Helena

Tel Aviv, Israel

30. Maya Shochataite-Davidow

Moshe and Golda Shohat
    Yitzhak Shohat – son of Moshe and Golda
    Nachum (Naum) Shohat – son of Moshe and Golda; married Masha Balin
        Maya Shochataite – daughter of Nachum and Masha; married Kalman Davidov; author

Eliahu Balin
    Masha Balin – daughter of Eliahu (see above)
    Faivele Balin – son of Eliahu
    Rachel Balin – daughter of Eliahu; married David Rubenstein

New York, New York
Tel Aviv, Israel
Haifa, Israel

31, Mina Stein-Wulf

Hirsch Stein
    Raya Stein –daughter of Hirsch; married Max Stein
        Izana Stein Levit – daughter of Raya and Max
        Mina (Manuela) Stein Wulf – daughter to Ray and Max; author
                Noa – granddaughter of Mina
    Adela Stein – daughter of Hirsh
    Leolia Stein – son of Hirsch; married to Bunya
        Mina Stein – daughter of Leolia; married Filip Kotkes
    Max Stein – son of Hirsch; married Lea
        Arie (Arik) Stein – son of Max and Lea
    David Stein – son of Hirsch

    Vera Stein - married Vulia (Wolf) Peper; aunt of author (exact relationship unclear)
    Anya Langleben Koc – aunt of author (exact relationship unclear)

Rebecca Stein – sister of Max Stein (author’s father)

Friends and Acquaintances
Anya Levinson
Tanchum Arnstam
Nosen and Musya Levit

Moscow, Soviet Union
Raanana, Israel

32. Lilit (Lyda) Yoffe-Davidson

Leiser Yoffe – married Yulia Segal
    Lyda (Lilit) Yoffe Davidson – daughter of Leiser and Yulia; author

Jerusalem, Israel

33. Boris Dvogovsky

Baruch and Chaya Kweskin
    Riva Kweskin – daughter of Baruch and Chaya; married Moshe Dvogovsky
        Boris Dvogovsky – son of Riva and Moshe; author
        Fruma Dvogovsky – daughter of Riva and Moshe
    Benishke Kweskin – son of Baruch and Chaya

Bat Yam, Israel

35. Julius Neumark

Leon (Leib) Neumark – married Pauline (Pesa) Grossman (2nd wife)
    Philipp (Shraga) Neumark – son of Leib and Pesa; married Gisela (Gittel) Neumann
        Julius Neumark – son of Shraga and Gittel; author

Vienna, Austria

35. Moisejus (Mika) Rosenblum

Moisei Rosenblum – married Raya Kenigsberg
    Anatolij Rosenblum – son of Moisei and Raya
        Moisejus (Mika) Rosenblum – son of Anatolij; author

Friends and Acquaintances
Avraham Tory
Mikhail Kopelman – married Evgeniya Gidoni

Ashdod, Israel

36. Mika (Michka) Karnovsky-Ash
Anna Osipovna Karnovsky
    Grigorij Karnovsky – son of Anna; married Gita Sandler
        Mika (Michka) Karnovsky – daughter of Grigorij and Gita; married Josef Ash; author
            Viki, Bela, Uri, and Giora Ash – children of Mika and Josef
    Nina Karnovsky – daughter of Anna; married to Yakov (Kuba) Gudinsky
        Rina Gudinsky – daughter of Nina and Yakov
    Otto Karnovsky – adopted son of Anna

Rafoel Sandler – married to Cerna-Beile
    Ester Sandler – married to and divorced from Teddy Blumenthal
        Rachel Blumenthal Josef – daughter of Ester and Teddy
    Gita Sandler – married Grigorij Karnovsky (see above)

    Lea and Yehuda – maternal aunt and uncle of author (exact relationships unclear)
Friends and Acquaintance
Muki Rabinovich
Mendel Kamber
    Ilana Kamber – Mendel’s daughter

Riga, Latvia
Kiron, Israel

37. Josef and Aviva Gilis

Pesiah Gilis
    Girsh Gilis – son of Pesiah;  married Chana Levner
        Pesia Gilis – son of Girsh and Chana
        Izya Gilis – son of Girsh and Chana
        Josef Gilis – son of Girsh and Chana; married Aviva Feller; authors
            Simona Gilis – daughter of Josef and Aviva

Moshe Levner – married to Simha
    Chana Levner – daughter of Moshe and Simha (see above)
    Meir Levner – son of Moshe and Simha
        Edik Levner – son of Meir
    Henekh Levner – son of Moshe and Simha
    Riva Levner – married to Zalman Baikovich
        Shulamith Baikovich – daughter of Riva and Zalman
    Haim Levner – son of Moshe and Simha

Netanya, Israel

38. Rina Joels Parason

Shlomo Joels
    Malka Joels – daughter of Shlomo
Shmuel Joels – brother of Shlomo; married Hanah
    Riva Joels Knobel
Benjamin Joels – brother of Shlomo: married Malka Kaplan
    Bella Joels Tal – daughter of Benjamin and Malka
    Rina Joels – daughter of Benjamin and Malka; married Moshe Parason; author

Reuven and Berta Kaplan – siblings (?) of Malka Kaplan (unclear if they are siblings or a couple; (see above)

Friends and Acquaintances
Shlomo Yarmovski
George (Hirsh) Kadushin

Zurich, Switerland
Soviet Union
Haifa, Israel

39. Maxim Broyeris, Alik (Peretz) Dvoretz, Genia Kaltinovsky-Zalishansky, and Masha Muller-Hathskelson

Leiser and Beila Ring
    Reizel Ring – daughter of Leiser and Beila; married Sleime Broyeris
        Ilya Broyeris – son of Reizel and Sleime
        Maxim Broyeris – son of Reizel and Sleime; married Salia Bychovsky; author

Yosef Dvoretz
    Shimon Dvoretz – son of Yosef; married Chaya Pen
        Peretz (Alik) Dvoretz – son of Shimon and Chaya; married Guta Vinnickaya; author

Michael Kaltinovsky – married Feiga Yoffe
    Genia Kaltinovsky – daughter of Michael and Feige; married Josef Zalishansky; author
        David and Daniel Zalishansky – sons of Genia and Josef
Rachael Kaltinovsky – sister of Michael

Lea Yoffe – sister of Feiga (see above)

Aaron Muller – married Hannah Fisher
    Masha Muller – daughter of Aaron and Hannah; married Lev Hathskelzon; author

Friends and Acquaintances
Moshe Dvogovsky
    Boris Dvogovsky – son of Moshe
Reiza Galah-Zisman
Or Yehuda, Israel
Nes Ziona, Israel
Beer Sheva, Israel

40. Dalia Hofmekler-Ginsburg

Motl (Mordekhai) Hofmekler – married Berta Blinder Stupel
    Michail Hofmekler – son of Motl and Berta; married Perele Radjunski
        Dalia Hofmekler – daughter of Michail and Perele; married Dova Ginzburg; author
            Einat Ginzburg – daughter of Dalia and Dova
    Ruven Hofmekler – son of Motl and Berta

Leib (Arie) Radjunski – married Zelda Arulianski
    Perele Radjunski – married Michail Hofmekler (see above)

Katia Segalson – cousin of author; exact relationship unclear
Sima and Lyuba Verzhbovsky – cousins of author’s mother (exact relationship unclear)

Friends and Family
Chana Brava
Shalom Kaplan (Eilati) - see separate entry for Shalom Eilati memoir

The United States
Ashdod, Israel

41. Kata Segalson-Rosen

Leib Segalson – married Chaya Svojatitzki
    Moses (Misha) Segalson – son of Leib and Chaya; married Chaya (Raya) Arulianski; 2nd marriage to Jenia Ginsberg Segal
        Liusik Sagalson – son of Misha and Chaya
        Katia (Kelly, Carmela) Segalson – daughter of Misha and Chaya; married Dan Rosen; author
            Osnat and Raya Rosen – daughters of Katia and Dan
                Maya – granddaughter of author (exact relationship unclear)
    Jacob Segalson - son Leib and Chaya; married Liuba
        Liova, Genia, and Vova Segalson – children of Jacob and Liuba
    Samuel Sagelson – son of Misha and Chaya; married to Raya
    Altochke Segalson Maliacki – daughter of Leib and Chaya
        Lialia Maliacki – daughter of Altochke

        Liusik and Chone – nephews of Misha Segalson (exact relationship unclear)
    Iliusha Segalson – cousin of Misha Segalson (exact relationship unclear)

Ovadia Jochelson – cousin of Misha Sagelson (exact relationship not clear)

Kopel Arulianski – married Taibe Shachnovitz
    Chaya Arulianski – daughter of Kopel and Taibe; married Misha Segalson (see above)
    Frida Arulianski – daughter of Kopel and Taibe
    Luba Arulianski – daughter of Kopel and Taibe
    Dokik Arulianski – son of Kopel and Taibe; married Ira Gurwitz

    Misha and Perale Hofmekler - Perele was cousin of author’s mother ( exact relationship unclear)
        Dalia Hofmekler – daughter of Misha and Perale

Friends and Acquaintances
Aharon and Raya Pertzikovitz
    Alik Pertzikovitz (Peretz) – son of Aharon and Raya
Enta Berger – sister-in-law to Aharon and Ray Perzikovitz (exact relationship unclear)
    Davik and Zina Berger – children of Enta
Aya Sauberblat
    Miron – son of Aya
Anna Rosenbaum Millner
    Bubi and Lilly Rosenbaum – children of Anna
Fruma Vitkin Kuchinskiene
Chone and Katia Lipshitz   
Helene Holzman
Hanna Brava
Abraham Klausner

South Africa
Helsinki, Finland
Lodz, Poland
Munich, Germany
Soviet Union

42. Ariana and Rut Jed

Aaron Jed
    Motl Jud – son of Aaron
    Meir Jud – son of Aaron; married Edna Fuks;  married Asya (2nd wife)
        Rut (Ruth) Jed – daughter of Meir and Edna; author
        Ariana Jed – daughter of Meir and Edna; author
    Ester Jud – daughter of Aaron

    Gerta Fuks – sister of Edna Fuks (see above)

Petah-Tikvah, Israel

43. Gidon Sheftel

Aharon Dambe – married Chaviva Libaite
    Gidon Dambe Sheftel – son of Aharon and Chaviva; married Shulamith Levin; author
        Arik, Alon, and Miri Sheftel – children of Gidon and Shalamith
Yakov Sheftel – married Chaviva Libaite (her 2nd marriage)
    Sarah Sheftel – daughter of Yakov and Chaviva

Friends and Acquaintances
Yakov Levin

Kfar Sava, Israel

44. Aharon Avidonis

Rouven and Malka Avidonis
    Aharon Avidonis – adopted son of Rouven and Malka; author

Haifa, Israel

45. Rina Badesh
Ishak Badesh – married Sonya Kalmansky
    Izya Badesh – son of Ishak and Sonya
    Rina Badesh – son of Ishak and Sonya; married Wolf (Zeev) Sharas; author
Hiena Badesh – sister of Ishak; married Simha Labensky

Yankele Kalmansky – brother of Sonya

Friends and Acquaintances
Dvorale Murin

Ema Shtok – aunt of author (exact relationship unclear)

Kiryat Ono

46. Gita German-Gordon-Frances
Yona German – married Fruma Lonshtein
    Gita German – daughter of Yona and Frum; author
Rivkah German – sister of Yona; married Pesach Gordon
    Sheinaleh Gordon – daughter of Rivkah and Pesach; married 2nd husband Judel Gerberajevsky
    Sarah Gerberajevsky – daughter of Rikvkah and Judel

Friends and Acquaintances
Chaim Yellen

Ramat Gan, Israel

47. Rut Latzman-Peer

Jehoshua Latzman – married Frida Peleryte (his 2nd wife); married Lina (his 3rd wife)
    Lili and Daniel  Latzman – children Jehoshua and his 1st wife (not named)
    Rut Latzman – daughter of Jehoshua and Frida; author
        Gil – son of Rut
    Lev (Leopold) Latzman – son of Jehoshua and Lina
Rochale Latzman – sister of Jehoshua
Henia Latzman – sister of Jehoshua
David Latzman – brother of Jehoshua

Friends and Acquaintances
Rocha Zacharovich
Meir and Busia Elin
Chaim Elin – brother to Meir

Tel Aviv, Israel

48. Rina Gilde-Rubinstein
Max Gilde – married Eida Judelvich
    Rina Gilde – daughter of Max and Eida; married Reuven Rubenstein; author
Fruma Gurvich – sister of Max

Fruma Hasman – sister of Eida Judelvich

Friends and Acquaintances
Pesah (Pisinka) and Chanale Joselevich - siblings

Siberia, Soviet Union
Haifa, Israel

49. Rina Zupovich-Kaplan-Wolbe and Simon Wolbe
Chaya Hinde Strashuner –
    Mira Strashuner – daughter of Chaya; married Meir Zupovich
        Rina Zupovich (Kaplan) – married Simon Wolbe; authors
    Frida Strashuner – daughter of Chaya (twin of Mira); married Yakov Kaplan
        Mark and Daniel Kaplan – sons of Frida and Yakov
        Rina Zupovich – adopted by Frida and Yakov (see above)
    Rosa Strashuner – daughter of Chaya
    Leibke Strashuner – son of Chaya

    Meir Zupovich – married Mira Strashuner (see above)
    Moshe Zupovich – brother of Meir
    Yehuda (Juda) Zupovich – brother of Meir; married Dita (Judith)

    Dita (Judith) Zupovich became Shperling when she re-married (see above)

Haim Wolbe – married Frida Epstein; married Zlate Mashkantz (2nd wife)
    Haya Wolbe – daughter of Haim and Frida
    Moshe Wolbe – son of Haim and Frida
    Simon Wolbe – son of Haim and Frida; married Rina Zupovich (see above);
    Itzhak Wolbe – son of Haim and Zlate

    Riva and Israel – children of Zlate

K’far Sava, Israel

50. Kama Ginkas

Avraam Gink
    Miron Ginkas – son of Avraam; married Manya Zingman
        Kama Ginkas – son of Miron and Manya; married Henrietta Yanovskaya; author
        Zhenya Ginkas – son of Miron and Manya
        Alisa Ginkas – daughter of Miron and Manya
    Lyolya (Lev) Gink – son of Avraam
Liza Zingman
    Khesya Zingman – son of Liza
    Manya Zingman – daughter of Liza (see above)

Moscow, Russia

To go to the informative website of Dovid Katz who has made Jewish Lithuania, including the Holocaust,  his area of research and publication, click here.

Monday, January 2, 2012

Half the Way Home: A Memoir of Father and Son by Adam Hochschild 1986

"Mr. Hochschild illuminates, with a rare tact, the situations of fathers and sons, and he avoids the traps of sentimentality and rancor both." From a review by Mary Gordon in the New York Times June 15, 1986

In this engaging memoir, journalist and writer Adam Hochschild (b. 1942) explores the relationship he had with his father, Harold Hochschild, who was the child of German Jewish immigrants. The author’s grandfather, Berthold, who came from a small village near Frankfurt, arrived in America in 1886 traveling first class, sent by his metal trading company to establish an affiliate in the states.

Hochschild writes that his grandfather spoke German and celebrated Christmas. He felt he had nothing in common with the masses of Yiddish-speaking Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe and wanted nothing to do with them. His like-minded son Harold did what he could to suppress his Jewish origins. He married a socially prominent Protestant and moved from the Upper West Side enclave of German Jewish immigrants to Park Avenue on the East Side.

Hochschild’s father became the Director of his father’s company, by now a global metal trading company with interests in mines worldwide. A socially ambitious man, Harold Hochschild lived his life purposefully, acquiring all the trappings of success. The author, his only child, had a governess, he was chauffeured to private school, then went away to boarding school, and he traveled all over the world with his parents. Summer months were spent at Eagle Nest, a compound in the Adirondack mountains where the family, aided by a large assortment of cooks, maids, butlers, and groundsmen, entertained large groups constantly.

Harold Hochschild had expectations that his son, Adam, would follow in his footsteps, but Adam Hochschild resisted the pressure he felt his father always applied to keep him on the track he was expected to follow. Because of his father's expectations and because his father was emotionally repressed, he felt tense in his father's presence from as early as he can remember.

After his father’s death, in cleaning out his study, Hochschild came across a memo his father had written in 1940 when Hitler was marching across Europe that helped him to see that many of his father’s behaviors were reactions to his suppressed Jewish identity. His father's memo was about antisemitism and he wrote that Jews should conduct themselves so as to be not singled out as Jews;  they should not call attention to themselves. Harold Hochschild, the son of a successful German Jewish immigrant, did what he could to assimilate into the larger culture, convinced that this strategy was in the best interests of his family.

To read an interesting article about American Jews and assimilation, click here.

Berthold Hochschild
    Harold Hochschild – son of Berthold; married Mary Marquand
        Adam Hochschild – son of Harold and Mary; married to Arlie Russell; author
            David and Gabriel Hochschild – sons of Adam and Arlie
    Walter Hochschild – son of Berhold;
    Gertrude Hochschild – daughter of Berthold; married Boris Sergievsky
        Kira Sergievsky – daughter of Gertrude and Boris
Hannah Blumenthal – cousin (exact relationship unexplained)

New York City
Eagle Nest, Adirondacks, NY
Princeton, NJ
San Fransisco, California